MB, BS, 1951; PhD, (Pathology), 1961
Education and Research
Early education, Ivanhoe Grammar School, Head, Rev. Sydney Buckley.
Post-WW2, Medicine at Melbourne University, graduating 1951. In 1955, began medical research (Experimental Pathology) Department of Pathology, under Prof. E.S.J.King.
1963-4, UICC Eleanor Roosevelt Fellow, Charles Pomerat's laboratory, Pasadena Foundation for Medical Research, Pasadena, California.
1965, Research Fellow, Keith Porter's Cell Biology Laboratory, Harvard University.
1966-7, NH&MRC Research Fellow, Dept. of Pathology, Melbourne University.
1968-1990 Senior Fellow, Department of Experimental Pathology, John Curtin School of Medical Research, ANU, under Prof. Colin Courtice where continued studies on the phenomena and control of cellular (and intra-cellular) movements, including the movements involved in tumour cell invasion and metastasis. See below, and 'Mysteries of Cellular Motion' In Frank Fenner and David Curtis, 'The John Curtin School of Medical Research: The First Fifty Years 1948-1998', pp. 255-258, Brolga Press, 2001.
Born, Melbourne,1925, son of Harry and Doris Buckley, one of five, four of whom served in World War II. Miraculously my oldest brother, Noel, survived Iceland-Murmansk convoys (anti-submarine role) as an officer in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve (RNVR). As RAAF navigator assigned (under the Empire Air Training Scheme) to RAF Coastal Command's 53 Squadron, my brother Allan Edward did not survive the war defending Britain's trans-Atlantic life-lines against Germany's submarines 'authorised' through the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935. My sister Joan, an Army officer, served in New Guinea as physiotherapist. A late starter, I trained and served as RAAF pilot, 1944-45. Too young, my young sister Dora remained at school.
Since retirement I've concentrated on researching and writing about the origins of the overseas wars Australia has been involved in, an interest followed since WW2, working with the Medical Association for Prevention of War, an organisation earlier formed in Britain by noted epidemiologist Richard Doll (of 'smoking cancer fame') and others responding to the threat of mutual nuclear annihilation brought on by the Cold War.
A summary of the background causes of the wars Australia has been involved in over the past 100 years is found hereunder:
[IB1] Australia's Foreign Wars: Origins, Costs, Future?!
Eleven historically-based essays to inform and warn Australians and others of the means through which people here and across the world have been led into wars not of their making, wars entirely contrary to their interests and well-being. Indeed, wars counter-productive to all participants and thus, in Churchill's clearly understated terms, "unnecessary" as explained here:
https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages Or illustrated on: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswars1.htm
[IB2] A Case History: Britain, Empire Decline, and the Origins
of WW1: Or, Might the Lessons of the Boer War have 'Saved the Day.
An Emeritus talk of July 18, 2007 considers the circumstances which led Britain to help generate, then take part in the First World War, a war so catastrophically counter-productive to all peoples involved. https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/Ian_Buckley_Emeritus_L1_2.pdf Illustrated at: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/casehistory.htm
[IB3] The WW1 Gallipoli Campaign: Aims, Options, Outcomes
Essay based on Emeritus talk of April 16, 2008 describing the reasons behind Britain's plans to invade Turkey during WWI, its unsuccessful efforts to entice as Allies the Balkan States, the failed all-naval assault to reach Constantinople, and (only) then its hastily organized land campaign, all of which ended so tragically for the people of all countries involved. https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/Ian_Buckley_Emeritus_L2_2.pdf Also at: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/australiagallipoli.htm
[IB4] UNESCO film "Slave Routes: A Global Vision"
abstract, introduction and resources » 15 August, 2012
[IB5] Learning from Adam Smith - Help at Hand Today
Following Adam Smith's wisdom we might come to understand where the modern industrial/financial world went wrong, thus showing us how the world's economies could be justly optimised to prevent further wars, save our over-stressed planet and provide human justice and agreeable living for all. https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/Adam_Smith_Essay.pdf http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/adamsmith.htm
[IB6] 'Causes of War' in the Context of International Trade:
World War One as just one cost of rejecting Adam Smith's wise Counsel'
Essay on the ill-conceived Western cultural evolutionary path, from the economic corruptions of 16th Century Europe, - with their deliberative exploitations and internecine wars, - to today's even more exaggerated corruptions, parallel exploitations and wars leading all to environmental chaos and internal economic collapse. https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/WWI_Causes_EF_Fin13.pdf
[IB7] From Adam Smith to the Present Mess via Depressions and
Two World Wars: A Short History of Economic and Christian Corruption
Across the West.
Essay outlining how the West's highly discriminatory world that Adam Smith condemned, has allowed itself to ignore his wise counsel towards fair trade that could establish a satisfied peaceful world free of war, - choosing instead to continue its preferred unjust special privileges which have brought the world of people and Nature to the brink of collapse.
[IB8] Survival Through the 21st Century
Appendix D, In Australia's Foreign Wars, a talk to ANU Women's Club, 2002
[IB9] Mercantile Origins of the Western World's Current Moral,
Economic, Military, Political and Environmental Crises: A Short History
of Humankind's Militarized Over-Expansion.
Essay dealing with how Western Society's derision of Adam Smith's analysis of Europe's mercantile political economy - which sought to dominate via monopoly, colonization and war - would end in mutual ruin, its powers rising and falling via mutually catastrophic wars and depressions. And yet how, still not satisfied, the West's continuing full-on arms production-led militarized system has brought our common home, the world of Nature to the brink.
[IB10] 'Causes of War' - Australian War Memorial (Education)
Through the good offices of Dr Peter Stanley, then AWM's Senior Historian, is reproduced hereunder in what was freely accessible for educational purposes on AWM's website from 1997. As seen, it comprised a selection of references taken from books, journals and online sources to assist our understanding of the historical and current origins of war, its destructive effects, how it might be prevented, and what might be done to replace unbridled resource and market competition and save both humankind and the planet's absolutely crucial life-supporting environment. It also occurred as a link on Stephen Luscombe's excellent The British Empire website. Without explanation or notice it vanished in 2007. Its archived version appears hereunder, most links having been disabled. Given that the AWM names its Galleries after armaments manufacturers, that may not surprise, yet it is a tragic betrayal of its proper aims as expressed by Lord Gowrie in his 1941 war-time opening speech.(see below)
[IB11] Australia's Governor-General, Lord Gowrie's speech opening
the Australian War Memorial, Armistice Day 1941
His plea for honest history, preventing war, and all round sanity.
http://www.britishempire.co.uk/article/australiaswarsl.htm (i.e., Appendix L)
[IB12] The Hague Conferences and Weapons of Mass Destruction;
Our Century's Record
Appendix B, In Australia's Foreign Wars, MAPW Canberra, 1999. Barbara Tuchman exposes such insanity.
[IBNF13] The West's Long-failed Economic System: Where to From
Ian Buckley and Nikolaus Fominas
On how the mismanaged Western leadership of the world has failed to keep faith with the commitments it made after two World Wars. Thus, instead of adhering to its solemn commitments to economic justice, fairness and guarantees of self rule and national independence, it continued with the disastrous mercantile practices which have long been dragging the world into its current catastrophic predicaments
From JOHN MENADUE's BLOG, 'Pearls and Irritations':
[IB14] Homo sapiens' catastrophic prospects: why and how wise remedies so long resisted. 14 February 2018
Proposed here is whether the wise counsel of Jesus of Nazareth, Adam Smith, George Kennan and legions of other insightful souls might well provide a sound basis for solutions to the world's self-made catastrophic disasters - a vitally crucial issue demanding action before 'point of no return' overtakes all. http://johnmenadue.com/ian-buckley-homo-sapiens-catastrophic-prospects-why-and-how-wise-remedies-so-long-resisted/
[IB15] Finding Solutions to Humankind's Neoliberal/Mercantile Crises. 31 March 2018
In resolving the crises brought on within current neoliberal economies, a widespread recognition of their historical derivation from the mercantile political economy that Adam Smith described and condemned (1776) is crucial for effective understanding of this system, its corrupt roots and its persistence; likewise for its urgently-needed transformation to a just economy that works harmoniously for all. https://johnmenadue.com/ian-buckley-finding-solutions-to-humankinds-neoliberal-mercantile-crises/
[IB16] Historical Light on Current Aims to Attack Iran 23 August 2018
This article highlights the vitally important role played by former US intelligence officers to prevent ongoing illegal regime changes across the world, presently Iran. Then, to better understand current examples, it explores their historical origins, consequences and possible remedies aimed at prevention. http://johnmenadue.com/ian-buckley-historical-light-on-current-aims-to-attack-iran/
[IB17] Can Humanity Escape Man-Made Debt Traps and Catastrophic
Wars? January 2019
Based on wise ideas developed over many centuries, this short essay aims to synthesise possible ways to remedy current world disorder. Since its long-standing ills due to exploitation and other economic injustices continue to increase societies' inequalities, the plunder of others' resources, and wars between contending powers (all undermining the world of Nature), urgency is vital. Otherwise on-coming generations have no future. https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/Can_Humanity_Escape_Man-Made_Debt_Traps_and_Catastrophic_Wars.pdf
[IBNF18] Reconstitution of The World's Self-Induced Failing Civilisations
- June 2019
Ian Buckley and Nikolaus Fominas
An essay dealing with current disastrous national failures across the world which are due to long-continued sleight-of-hand wealth subtractions from both societies and their natural capital environments. It examines how accumulating industrial activities stemming from the mercantile political economy that Adam Smith described and condemned have persisted, shattering social and environmental systems beyond tolerable limits with the consequential social and environmental damage now so extreme it threatens future life on earth. The historical process is described, analysed and possible remedies proposed. https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/Reconstitution_of_The_World's_Self-Induced_Failing_Civilisations.pdf
[IB19] A Biographic View of The West
- February 2020
This essay considers the West’s ever weakening economies due to its top elites’ excessive self-regard, - such avarice reflecting their failure to recognise economies’ key contributors, Mother Nature and the shop-floor exploited. Both scandalously ignored in favour of limitless production and rentier excess. Imperial Rome set it off, widespread plunder and massacres across Europe leading to its Fall, elites still grasping land, status and unlimited credit-based wealth. Such led to Europe’s mercantile political economies that Adam Smith condemned for their base injustice, cruelty and inefficiency. As ever, upper stratum wealth hinged on cheating those below, at home and abroad. Hence monopolies and repeated wars, industrialisation ensuring enormous destructiveness and unfathomable losses (WWI, WWII) through to the present day. Thus, now, while ‘life-saving’ debt may enable the exploited to survive, Depressed economies grow ever weaker. Economist Michael Hudson tells all in his truly enlightening “Killing the Host: How financial parasites and debt bondage destroy the global economy” https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/A_Biographic_View_of_The_West.pdf
[IB20] Origins of Modern Economies, Generating WW2 and Plundering the Planet - August 2020
A Submission to the Commission for the Human Future.
Today’s catastrophic social and economic crises were long preceded by centuries of unnecessary wars deriving from unfair societal treatment. The Fall of Rome due to civil wars over debt peonage led to wars across Europe, its power brokers fighting over the spoils, this continuing into the Feudal era. Such deplored by Adam Smith, he advocating fair treatment across the world trading system. However, Western societies’ elites held to their aggressive ‘mercantile political economies’ which meant plundering others’ resources and war between themselves over the spoils, such practices continuing through to the present day. Hence, unnecessary wars, ever more mutually destructive wars, including highly-industrialised WW1 and WW2, as recognised by Winston S. Churchill where, post-WW2, (1948) he recorded: "One day President Roosevelt told me that he was asking publicly for suggestions about what the war should be called. I said at once "the unnecessary war. There never was a war more easy to stop than that which has just wrecked what was left of the world from the previous struggle." Winston Churchill, (Preface xiv) to The Gathering Storm, Vol 1 of his History of WW2. This submission deals with the on-going ill-judged Western economic and military practices that continue to extinguish life on earth; it suggesting measures to stop this impending nihilistic fate. https://emeritus.anu.edu.au/members/ian_buckley/pages/Origins_of_Modern_Economies_-_Engineering_WW2_and_Plundering_the_Planet.pdf
Looking Back - Pathology Meets Biology at the Cellular Level
Working with living tissue observed microscopically in rabbit 'ear chambers' subjected to microprobe radio-frequency injury, one saw intra- and extra-vascular 'bubbles', clear floating vesicles (attracting leucocytes) or, whenever aggregating, 'tubules'. In the 19th Century working with nervous tissue Rudolf Virchow saw similar formations he termed 'myelin figures'. In Paris. Nageotte understood the vesicles as bi-molecular lipid layers, these later known to form from phospholipids, soaps and other amphipathic sources. Perfused with phospholipase A, mine 'popped'.
(A) whole cell overview with faint ER grey strands.
(B) two images of clear branching network
at 30 second interval
(C) cell showing dilated networks in motion
with 20 second interval
As seen above, movies of self-spread cells in culture revealed the extreme extensibility and plasticity of cell surfaces and interior cytoplasmic organelles which in contrast to the nucleus, were always in motion. Never ceasing, particulate organelles e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes and occasional vesicles moved independently of one another in diverse directions, never in streams. An inter-connected network of barely-visible grey 'threads' (connecting with expanded cisternae) permeated the background cytoplasm. Strikingly, they too were always in motion, the network strand pattern forever changing. (B) Occasionally, especially in damaged cells, strands would show internal vesiculation, occasionally extreme yet still part of the strand. (C) All in all an exciting finding, especially for Porter, Palade and Siekevitz who, by electron microscopy and other means, had reported a ribosome-studded 'endoplasmic reticulum'. For they had had to face ongoing assertions that their electron microscopic images were not 'real', but rather heavy metal-induced 'artefacts'.
Electron micrographs of chemically-fixed cultured cells, freeze-dried and examined as whole mounts to show ribosome-studded ER in filamentous surroundings
As electron microscopy of such cultured cells revealed, their asymmetrically extended margins were occupied by bundles (or sheets) of close-packed filaments identical to those of muscle. Yet no myosin filaments nor even myosin 'heads' were detected, even though biochemically such non-muscle cells were known to contain myosin. Yet as the cytoplasm displayed also tubular filaments ('microtubules') like those in motile cilia, it was important to test whether their force-generating 'dynein' might be powering the movements. However, although vanadate ion micro-injected into cultured oviduct cells promptly stopped their cilial motion, the same procedure had no effect whatever on any of the movements of, or within, cultured cells..
Lacking comparable myosin inhibitors to microinject, I turned to consider the biological basis of malignancy. For there was a striking difference between the behaviour of cells in true tissue culture, where cells maintained their normally ordered pattern of different cell types, - compared to the culture of separated cells which continued their separate lives, multiplying continually while wandering off in separate directions, what amounts to total disorder. Consider now how individual organisms develop from a single fertilised cell, step by step in ordered fashion, each step giving the new generation of cells a new identity, including a new position, that continuing to maturity - and ever after throughout life. So, in effect because it is self-correcting following minor injuring, it becomes self-regulatory. But only while the pattern remains intact! For once the cells are scattered, there is no possibility of a pattern-determining process.
Many angles emerge, but one is the likely connection to loss-of-function
genetic mutations known to cause retinoblastomas and other malignancies
stemming from 'tumour-suppressor' genes. Indeed, as demonstrated in
Mainz, Germany by Elizabeth Gateff in Drosophila larvae, damage
to lethal (2) giant larvae, (l(2)gl) results in distorted tissue
patterning of the larva, the greater the damage the grosser the distortion,
until with the gene's total loss (homozygous complete deletions of the
locus) there is no pattern, simply a jumble of proliferating wandering
cells. As explained by Knudson and others, much corroborating evidence
comes from the study of human malignancies caused by 'tumour-suppressor'
genes, some inherited (appearing early in life) others long delayed
pending obligatory loss of both alleles of the particular gene.
Its all a bit of a long story, so I've included a 1992 reference here:
Buckley, Ian. Tumor Suppressor Genes, Tissue Pattern Control,
and Tumorigenesis Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 36,
1, 24-38, 1992
Indeed, after that excursion into the unknown I thought I should take more seriously the out of doors, having not that long ago since taken to sailboarding about which I soon became enthusiastic, possibly boring to others. But I had lots of help from young sailors and it was heaps of fun.
Cell Biology, Cellular Motion, History, Current Affairs, Origins of and Prevention of War